Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Onions Combating Tuberculosis and Osteoporosis

Research Advances: Onions Battle Osteoporosis; New Weapon in War on TB; Smokers Beware: Study Shows Increased Cadmium Levels in the Brain May Cause Severe Neurological Disorders

(Source:http://pubs.acs.org; Angela G. King
Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109
J. Chem. Educ., 2005, 82 (8), p 1114 )

Abstract of Report:
This Report from Other Journals surveys articles of interest to chemists that have been recently published in other science journals. Topics surveyed include reports that a compound in onions reduces bone loss; a new diarylquinone inhibits tuberculosis in vitro; and cadium in tobacco influences amphetamine effects.

Nanotech to 'Upgrade' Tuberculosis Drugs


Scientists use nanotech to 'upgrade' TB drugs
(Source:www.scidev.net by Carol Campbell 29 September 2009 | EN)

Scientists in South Africa have utilized nanotechnology to enhance the absorption of tuberculosis (TB) drugs in the body so that fewer, smaller doses are needed.

Clinical trials for the antibiotic, Rifanano — a combination of the four main first-line TB drugs — are scheduled for 2012 and the drug should be available in government clinics in 2016, Hulda Swai, principal researcher in biomaterials research told SciDev.Net.

Swai and her team from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) won 'best science to business opportunity' at the second SA Bio Plan Competition held during the recent Bio2Biz Conference in South Africa last week (20–23 September).

Rifanano needs to be taken just once a week for two months and there are no adverse reactions. Most TB antibiotics must be taken daily for up to six months and often cause debilitating side effects, such as nausea and fatigue.

The new drug is coated with nano-sized particles which are in turn coated with chemicals that make them stick to the intestine wall, enabling the drug to be far more easily absorbed.

"When the white blood cells see these particles they take them up because they look like foreign objects. But doing so they actually transport them throughout the body while releasing their cargo," says Swai.

"We have not invented a new medicine but have taken existing medicine and made it better."

Team member Boitumelo Semete says Rifanano will be targeted at government health departments in the developing world.

"TB is a poor man's disease, which means it's not a popular choice for development by commercially driven pharmaceutical companies," she says. "We are using local science and technology skills to make an existing treatment more effective and affordable for our people."

Nanotechnology is being used by scientists worldwide to improve the efficiency of treatment for a host of diseases. CSIR now plans to turn its attention to improving medications for a number of other diseases, including malaria and cancer.

The Bio Plan award ceremony was attended by Naledi Pandor, minister of science and technology, and Mamphela Ramphele, chair of the board for the new Technology Innovation Agency. The competition was organised in a joint collaboration between Emory University in the United States and South Africa's Innovation Fund.

A New Class of Antimycobacterial Agent that Kills TB Bugs

A New Class of Antimycobacterial Agent

Report that was originally published in Science Express on 19 March 2009 & Science 8 May 2009:Vol. 324. no. 5928, pp. 801 - 804 is really highly helpful in the area of TB research where new drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic (Source:www.sciencemag.org). In this report, Dr. Stewart T. Cole1 and co-workers working in different institutes, etc.(contact address: stewart.cole@epfl.ch) have described the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB.

Using genetics and biochemistry, they have identified the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-epimerase as a major BTZ target. Inhibition of this enzymatic activity abolishes the formation of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a key precursor that is required for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans, thus provoking cell lysis and bacterial death. The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB.

Tuberculosis Diet

Diet For Tuberculosis Patients


A poor diet with an improper life style raises the risk of tuberculosis. Use of tobacco, loss of sleep, sedentary activity, cold exposure, alcohol abuse and excessive work are the typical; causes of tuberculosis. Calcium is helpful in treatment. Milk is a good mode of treatment and is at times, exclusively supplied. A milk diet succeeds a liquid diet. A glass of milk is provided, once in two hours. This is followed by one and a half glass on the second day, every one hour. Fruits such as orange, pine apple, gooseberry, banana and custard apple prove beneficial. They help in diluting the mucus and act as an expectorant. They also prevent further infection. Vegetables include the usage of bottle gourd, mint and drumstick leaves.

Caffeinated beverages, canned and tinned foods, white bread, refined sugar, puddings, pies, refined cereals, sauces, condiments and pickles are not recommended for tuberculosis. A vegetarian diet pattern is preferred, as non vegetarian foods are difficult to digest. A diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits are helpful. Whole grains and low fat dairy products are useful.

Friday, February 12, 2010

Questions About Drug- and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)

Drug- and multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) - Frequently asked questions

(Source: http://www.who.int/tb/challenges/mdr/faqs/en/index.html)

How does drug-susceptible TB become drug-resistant TB?
Drug resistance arises due to the improper use of antibiotics in chemotherapy of drug-susceptible TB patients. This improper use is a result of a number of actions, including administration of improper treatment regimens by health care workers and failure to ensure that patients complete the whole course of treatment. Essentially, drug-resistance arises in areas with poor TB control programmes.

What is multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB)?
MDR-TB is a specific form of drug-resistant TB due to a bacillus resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin, the two most powerful anti-TB drugs.

What is the difference between the management of drug-resistant TB and drug-susceptible TB?
In areas of minimal or no MDR-TB, DOTS achieves cure rates of up to 95%; rates high enough to dramatically reduce the TB burden while preventing the emergence of drug-resistant TB. However, an effective strategy, the management of drug-resistant TB is still in pilot stage. While drug-susceptible TB can be cured within six months, forms of drug-resistant TB (such as MDR-TB) require extensive chemotherapy (with drugs which have more side effects) for up to two years.

How do we measure drug-resistant TB globally?
In 1994, WHO, the International Union Against TB and Lung Disease, and other partners began the Global Project on Drug Resistance Surveillance in order to standardize the sampling and laboratory methodologies used to measure drug resistant tuberculosis. Today, areas representing almost half of global TB cases have been surveyed.

Are TB and drug-resistant TB real threats to everyone?
Presently, TB is the second greatest contributor among infectious diseases to adult mortality causing approximately 1.7 million deaths a year worldwide. WHO estimates that one-third of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The WHO/IUATLD Global Project on Drug Resistance Surveillance has found MDR-TB (prevalence > 4% among new TB cases) in Eastern Europe, Latin America, Africa, and Asia.

Given the increasing trend toward globalisation, trans-national migration, and tourism, all countries are potential targets for outbreaks of MDR-TB.

How is WHO addressing the problem of drug resistance?

In 1998 WHO and several partners around the world conceived a strategy for the management of MDR-TB. The approach to the management of MDR-TB is under continuous development and testing. The latest recommendations on the management of drug-resistant TB are published in the Emergency Update of the WHO Guidelines for the programmatic management of drug-resistant TB. A working group on MDR-TB of the STOP TB Partnership was established in 1999 to assist in producing policy recommendations for Member States on the management of MDR-TB, based on the assessment of the feasibility, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness data generated by pilot projects implemented by the agencies/institutions participating in the Working Group, or by the World Health Organization (WHO); to coordinate and monitor the implementation of internationally comparable pilot projects for the management of MDR-TB; to establish a system that allows WHO Member States to have access to high-quality second-line drugs at reduced prices and, at the same time, prevents misuse of such drugs; to review progress achieved in countries managing MDR-TB through the Green Light Committee (GLC); and to identify resources to fund and implement MDR-TB control and to assist with global coordination of the initiative.

What is Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)

What is Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB)

(Source: http://www.who.int/tb/challenges/xdr/en/index.html)

XDR-TB is the abbreviation for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). One in three people in the world is infected with dormant TB germs (i.e. TB bacteria). Only when the bacteria become active do people become ill with TB. Bacteria become active as a result of anything that can reduce the person’s immunity, such as HIV, advancing age, or some medical conditions. TB can usually be treated with a course of four standard, or first-line, anti-TB drugs. If these drugs are misused or mismanaged, multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) can develop. MDR-TB takes longer to treat with second-line drugs, which are more expensive and have more side-effects. XDR-TB can develop when these second-line drugs are also misused or mismanaged and therefore also become ineffective. Because XDR-TB is resistant to first- and second-line drugs, treatment options are seriously limited. It is therefore vital that TB control is managed properly.

Thursday, February 11, 2010